Czechoslovak Intelligence Service (1953 - 1990)
Directorate I of the Ministry of the Interior (Directorate I of the National Security Corps, Main Intelligence Service Directorate) – the main organizational body of the intelligence services of the communist regime in Czechoslovakia. Foreign-political intelligence service (with the cover name Directorate I of the Ministry of the Interior) was created in October 1953 within the scope of the emergence of the Ministry of the Interior in close cooperation with Soviet advisors. The original apparatus of 180 agents at the headquarters and 18 residenturas at the end of 1955 increased to 327 people. A hundred and twenty-three servicemen worked abroad, of those, 90 were operatives who were legalized in positions as employees of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, foreign trade or the Czechoslovak Press Agency. In addition to infiltrating central state organs of Western states, their agent operative activity was aimed against those in exile, the Vatican, and Radio Free Europe, among others. The Intelligence Service was not systematically focused only on the standard acquisition of secret information, but also on the discrediting of exile leaders, disinformation of Western intelligence services, abductions, and in limited cases, even on the physical liquidation of persons.
More information about the history of Directorate I of the Ministry of the Interior in the period 1969 – 1989 can be found under the DICTIONARY entries. An overview of the organizational structure of Directorate I for each year is provided in the ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE section. The diagram is interactive and clicking on the appropriate box brings up a description and definition.
The RESIDENTURAS section provides an overview of the most important sites of Directorate I of the Ministry of the Interior from where the Czechoslovak Intelligence Service ran foreign operations in the years 1953 – 1989, mainly against the chief enemies the US and NATO. Directorate I agents worked at all Czechoslovak embassies or general consulates, from where they provided coded and radio communications. The infographic displays only those locations from where the Czechoslovak Intelligence Service conducted operational activities (in yellow). The military intelligence (Intelligence Directorate of the General Staff) and counterintelligence services (Federal Ministry of the Interior) also had residenturas abroad (red). Clicking on the corresponding point (city) brings up more detailed information.
Po únoru 1948 stala se rozvědka jednou z důležitých součásti komunistického státního aparátu. Dosavadní zpravodajství zastupitelských úřadů (ZÚ) ochromených masovými dezercemi se prakticky zhroutilo. Bylo nutno přikročit k přípravám systematické a metodické výstavby jejího aparátu doma i v zahraničí, kde byly podmínky velmi nepříznivé. Začaly se zřizovat první rezidentury na ambasádách, vedle úkolů politického zpravodajství ovšem i s úkoly obrannými (zejména předcházení dezercím). Kádroví rezidenti se opírali také o komunisty - pracovníky ZÚ, kteří byli získávaní k tajné spolupráci. Zvláštní pozornost věnovalo rozvědce vedení KSČ, osobně Klement Gottwald a úzká byla spolupráce rovněž s Vladimírem Clementisem jako státním tajemníkem a později ministrem zahraničí. Aparát ÚV KSČ rozvědku plně a aktivně podporoval, zejména při výběru kádrů. Souběžně s rozvědným oddělením ministerstva vnitra (MV) fungovalo i rozvědné oddělení povereníctva vnútra v Bratislavě.
Úkol přebudovat dosavadní zpravodajskou službu na konspirativní rozvědku dostal na konci roku 1948 bývalý interbrigadista Oskar Valeš, do té doby krajský organizační tajemník KSČ v Ústí nad Labem. Rozvědka přesídlila do objektu bývalé čínské ambasády a operativní sektor byl umístěn v tajném objektu v centru Prahy (Palác Dunaj). Na vyhodnocovaní zpráv byl zřízen nezávislý studijní sektor. Práce byla zaměřena především proti československé emigraci, ale také po linii politické především proti západním státům. Od května 1950 v rozvědce působili sovětští poradci, kteří přinesli nové pracovní metody a zkušenosti.
Nárůst kádrů představoval v r. 1950 - asi 100 příslušníků, r. 1953 - 360 osob, r. 1957 - 520 osob, r. 1959 - 770 osob, r. 1961 - 930 osob.
V dubnu 1951 došlo k čistkám, po kterých v rozvědce zbylo jen několik dosavadních pracovníků. Zatčen a odsouzen byl rovněž Valeš. Bez sovětských poradců by se práce rozvědky zhroutila. Postupně však docházelo k pomalé konsolidaci a od konce roku 1952 i k vzestupu práce. Od roku 1953 s nástupem Rudolfa Baráka do funkce ministra vnitra se zájem MV o rozvědku zvedl a dochází k jejímu rychlému růstu odpovídajícímu zaměření především podle dohod se sovětskou KGB. Na přání sovětské rozvědky bylo dohodnuto rozšířit práci čs. rozvědky prakticky na celý svět i když kvalita i množství kádrů nebyly v té době zcela dostatečné. Po Vokáčovi, Havranovi, Františkovi Kubíkovi a Josefu Blažkovi se v r. 1953 náčelníkem rozvědky stal plk. Jaroslav Miller “Mašek” a rozvědka dosahuje úspěchy. Od roku 1954 rozvědka funguje jako samostatný útvar MV pod názvem I. správa MV. Miller je odvolán v r. 1961. Ve funkci ho vystřídal plk. Josef Houska.
Příčinou růstu byla především specializace činnosti (vedle politické rozvědky a zahraniční kontrarozvědky se rozvinula vědecko-technická rozvědka, samostatný sektor nelegální rozvědky atd . ) V roce 1964 byl také ukončen extensivní růst vytvořením zbývajících specialisovaných pracovišť (např. odboru aktivních opatření a desinformací) a převzetím radistů Ministerstva zahraničních věcí ( po šifrérech a diplomatických kurýrech). K 1 . lednu 1968 byl celkový početní stav rozvědky 1.236 příslušníků (bez šifrérů, radistů, kurýrů 4. 020), z toho v zahraničí 352 operativních a neoperativních pracovníků.
V r. 1968 ministr vnitra Josef Pavel odvoláva Housku z funkce náčelníka a řízení přebíra jeho bývalý zástupce mjr. Miloslav Čech “Čada”. V srpnu 1968 se Houska nakrátko vrací zpátky. Po něm krátce I. správu řídil plk. Čestmír Podzemný. V letech 1971 - 1981 rozvědku řídil gen. RSDr. Miloš Hladík. V období 1981 - 1989 rozvědku řídil gen. Karel Sochor a následně velmi krátce plk. Karel Vodrážka. Posledním pověřeným náčelníkem byl pplk. PhDr. Vilém Václavek “Kainar”.
Zajímavým ukazatelem byla politická organizovanost příslušníků I. správy SNB. V roce 1974 bylo členy KSČ 89,3% všech členů I. správy, přičemž u příslušníků pracujících přímo v operativě tento ukazatel činil 98,3%.
Ještě v roce 1974, po výměne cca 30% stavu zůstavá v 99 náčelnických funkcích 25 lidí jenom se záklaním vzděláním.
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Organizační struktura 1969 - 1989
I. správa SNB
Internal Affairs Department
The Main Intelligence Service Directorate
1 June 1969 - 31 March 1971
desinformations, active measures
Financial and Planning Dept.
Directorate I of the Ministry of the Interior
1 April 1971 - 31 January 1974
spec services analysis
the Op-Mechanical Records (archive)
selection, education, steering
Section of communications and op. technics
Section of Economic support and services
Personnel and School Section
Embassies protection Section
Chief of Material-Technical Support
Financial and Planning Dept.
Section - Info
Inspection and Defense Section
Projekt podpořili: Platforma evropké paměti a svědomí, Konrad Adenauer Stiftung, Velvyslanectví Estonska
Deputy for political
Directorate I of the Ministry of the Interior
Deputy for political intelligence
Deputy for illegal intelligence
(personnel and school)
Directorate I Chief
(Turkey, Far East)
Chief of the
analysis and planning
Automation and Records
Africa, Middle East
Socialist Union of Youth Committee (6)
Directorate I of the Federal Ministry of the Interior
September 1974 - 30 September 1975
MOFA special Section (26)
Directorate I Specialized School
W. Germany, Austria
spec. services analysis
canceled 1 Feb 1976
USA and LATAM
Communist Party Committee (2)
(active meassures, desinformations)
Coordination with East Bloc Intell.
Section 12 - Illegal Intell. direction
Directorate I of the Ministry of the Interior
(as of 7 April 1968)
Directorate I of National Security Corps
1 October 1988 - 1990
Communications, Encryption, Couriers
(USA and LATAM)
Financial and Planning Dept. (66)
analysis and plannings
Directorate I Specialized School
Automation & Records
Directorate I of the Ministry of the Interior
1 February 1974 - September 1974
Spec. services analysis
Material-Technical Support Administration
Special Dept. MOFA (26)
PRAGUE (centrála)Czechoslovak Intelligence Service from 1948 housed in several buildings in Prague. First was the former Chinese embassy. The Operational Section was located in a secret building on Národní třída (Danube Palace). Since February 1949, it was housed in Vodičkova Street no. 39 in the building of the nationalized company Centrokomise under the cover of its technical department. The entrance to the building codenamed the "Cottage" was through the passage that opened into the Franciscan Gardens. In 1953, the headquarters of Directorate I of the Ministry of the Interior was housed in the former Masaryk dormitory in Sadová Street in Dejvice, then was moved in 1961 into the building of the Monastery of the Knights of the Cross in Prague 1. From February 1976 until mid-April 1977, Directorate I of the Federal Ministry of the Interior (except for the Illegal Intelligence Sections) moved from the old buildings into the newly constructed building in Střelničná Street in the Kobylisy district of Prague –codenamed the "Cottage".
TEL AVIVThe Czechoslovak government recognized the independence of Israel on 19 May 1948 and diplomatic relations were established on 3 July 1948. Up until 1952 Israel was supplied with military equipment and weapons from Czechoslovakia, which provided military training as well. Then the communist government ended support and from 1953 began intensive trade and military cooperation with the new Egyptian regime of Gamal Abdel Nasser. From 1956 – 1960 the residentura was directed by First Lieutenant Václav Louda "Havlik", whose deputy was (until 1961) Lieutenant Stanislav Kozubík "Krejčí (The Tailor)" (right). In this period, the residentura was controlled by three secret collaborators. At the beginning of 1960, the Shin Bet arrested Prof. Kurt Sitte "Chudák (The Pauper)", who worked in the Technion technology and research institute in Haifa and as a Czechoslovak agent cooperated in obtaining information on Israel's nuclear program. His last handling officer was Viliam Ciklamini "Cidlinský". After the Six-Day War in 1967, the USSR, Czechoslovakia and Bulgaria broke off diplomatic relations with Israel. The residentura was abolished and its activities were taken over by the residenturas in neighbouring Arab countries.
CAIROAfter the coup and the establishment of a republic in 1953, the USSR and Czechoslovakia began intensive cooperation with the Egyptian regime of Gamal Abdel Nasser. In September 1955, a major military contract was concluded, which ended the Western monopoly on supplies of weapons to the region. The residentura was one of the most important and largest in the Middle East and worked closely with the KGB. It also operated in numerous commercial departments (branch in Alexandria), offices of Czechoslovak Airlines (ČSA) and the Czechoslovak Press Agency (ČTK). As part of program 105 military material was imported into the country. In 1956, the Resident was First Lieutenant Josef Šebesta "Miksa" and in 1961 the deputy became Captain František Vlček "Petřina". In 1964, during the visit of Nikita Khrushchev, the residentura actively used agents to prepare Egypt for negotiations with the Soviet delegation. At that time (1962 – 1966) the Resident was Major Jarmil Smetana "Šustr". From 1969 – 1972 Major Vladimír Hrušecký "Houska" (left) was Deputy Resident. From October 1969 the Resident was Major František Šnajdr "Ditrych", 1972 – 1978 Lieutenant Colonel Zdeněk Kvita "Peterka". The Cairo Resident of the Intelligence Directorate of the General Staff Karel Sochor (bottom left) was in 1981 appointed chief of Directorate I of the Federal Ministry of the Interior. From 1981 – 1987, the residentura was headed by Captain Ing. Jaromir Kaloč "Kaluža (Puddle)". The residentura monitored US and NATO facilities in the region, gaining knowledge of their policies and economic situation, monitored the interests and activities of Israel, the activities of terrorist groups and their actions against Czechoslovakia and the communist countries. It performed tasks in conjunction with the Soviet intelligence service. The Intelligence Service successfully built a network of agents in the ranks of the intelligence and security forces. In 1987, the Deputy Resident was Major Ján Kuruc "Mináč". The last Resident appointed was Major František Kaleja "Antalík".
WEST BERLINThe Czechoslovak military mission at the Allied Control Council in Germany – West Berlin began its work in Limonenstraße 27 on 8 January 1946. It was for a long time the only Czechoslovak diplomatic mission in West Germany. It even remained formally accredited after the USSR no longer participated in the Allied Control Council. Directorate I also established a residentura in East Berlin. From 1965 – 1970 the Resident was Major Zdeněk Skoba "Sýkora" and from 1971 – 1973 Lieutenant Colonel Vladislav Děkan "Nezval". The treaty between Czechoslovakia and Germany, establishing regular diplomatic relations, among other things, was signed in December 1973. Until then the West Berlin mission took over consular functions for all of West Germany. The Intelligence Service worked in US and NATO facilities in direct cooperation with Soviet and East German intelligence services, used the territory to control agencies from third countries and to carry out embargoed imports and special deliveries for the Ministry of the Interior. In autumn 1968, the Deputy Resident became Major Antonín Jurečka "Jindra". In 1989 there were seven Directorate I servicemen working at the residentura, including the Resident Colonel Ing. Jaroslav Žemlička "Žabka (The Frog)" (legalized in the position of Federal Ministry of Foreign Affairs Executive, 1st class).
BONNThe first Resident tasked with building the residentura was Major Věroslav Sobek "Šedivý (The Grey)" (fig.) from 1974 – 1979, legalized in the position of Federal Ministry of Foreign Affairs Executive, 1st class and head of the economic department at the newly opened embassy. Under his leadership the agency network expanded and political intelligence was focused on West Germany's ruling party and state apparatus. It built on the successes of the fifties and sixties, e.g. the successful handling of secret collaborators Valentin Karlibovsky (code name "Leon") and federal deputy Alfred Frenzel (code name "Anna"). The residentura was one of the largest in Western Europe. In 1988 it was staffed by 23 agents, which the headquarters planned to increase to 37. In March 1982, the Czechoslovak Intelligence Service used the residentura to contact Zoltán Szabo and Clyde Lee Conrad, who until 1986 handed over secret information about "the main enemy – the USA and NATO". Both were among the most important agents in the Czechoslovak Intelligence Service and were also highly valued by the KGB. The group was arrested in August 1988. Among others, the tasks of the residentura included the development of specialized services in West Germany, the "Ideo-Diversion and Emigration Section", scientific-technical intelligence, the detection of signs of a sudden nuclear missile attack on the USSR and the communist countries. Czechoslovakia also built and used a network of illegal residenturas in West Germany. The last Resident was Major Jiří Lejnar "Dusík (Nitrogen)" in 1989.
HAVANAThe residentura was established on 17 May 1960 concurrently with the launch of the Czechoslovak embassy in Cuba. The first resident was Captain Zdeněk Kvita "Peterka", who was legalized in the position of Federal Ministry of Foreign Affairs 3rd Secretary. One of its main tasks was to detect upcoming economic and political measures by the USA against Cuba, the realization of influential policy to discriminate against US activities and further contribute to the growth of nationalism and the growing efforts of the independence of Latin America. Attention was also paid to US military bases in the region. The residentura worked closely with the KGB's intelligence service. In terms of the number of codes sent to the headquarters, the residentura soon ranked fourth after Vienna, Paris and London. In 1961, First Lieutenant Bedřich Kubeš "Rogl" (right) was appointed Resident. In addition to weapons, help for the "Cuban Revolution" was provided in the form of training, instructors, intensive exchange of information and more. The residentura in the later period served to improve language and professional training of Directorate I operatives prior to deployment to target countries. From 1964 – 1968, the Resident was Major František Šindelář "Stupka"(bottom right), followed in 1971 by Lieutenant Colonel Jiří Syrovátka "Sýkora" and then in 1973 by Major Ota Jiroušek "Jíra". In the period from 1973 – 1976, Lieutenant Colonel Jiří Syrovátka was again Resident.
WASHINGTON,D.C.The residenturas on US soil acquired information about the preparations and plans of the "main enemy" – the USA – to attack the communist countries, the issues of disarmament, uncovering plans for the destruction of communism, the activities of special services of the USA and its activities in the UN, scientific-technical intelligence, etc. In 1956, there were two agents working in the residentura: First Lieutenant Jaroslav Marek "Moučka" (1st Secretary) and Deputy Lieutenant Bohuslav Jůza "Jeník" (2nd Secretary) and cipherer. On 28 December 1968, Major JUDr. Ladislav Derka "Deml" (1st Secretary, right) was appointed Resident. In January, Major Ing. Antonín Nenko "Nedvěd" (2nd Secretary) was appointed as his deputy for scientific-technical intelligence, but in 1970 he defected to the Americans. After him, the deputy from 1970 – 1974 was Major Jan Smělý "Stolař". From 1972 – 1976, the residentura was directed by Lietuenant Colonel Eduard Fuchs "Dominik" (left). From August 1983, the Resident was Colonel Zdeněk Sokol "Záleský". Headquarters succeeded in moving its agent Karel Köcher (Pedro, Rino) with his wife to the United States, where he managed to infiltrate the CIA (1973), where he worked as an analyst and translator. In 1984 he was arrested by the FBI and in 1986 expelled (exchange of agents in Berlin). In this period their commanding officer Jan Fila "Šturma" defected to the Americans. It is likely that agent Köcher was betrayed to the Americans either by him or by KGB general Oleg Kalugin. The last Resident was Major Josef Poštulka "Kopřiva" in 1989 and there were 11 other operative staff in the residentura.
NEW YORKNew York was an important residentura in the country of the "main enemy" the USA. The Intelligence Services worked here under the diplomatic cover of the Czechoslovak representation at the UN. In 1956, Major Milouš Vejvoda "Bartoš" was appointed to head the residentura (legalized in the position of 1st Secretary) and his deputy was Lieutenant Josef Svoboda "Soukal" (legalized in the position of 2nd Secretary). The residentura had seven other operative staff, one driver and a cipherer. From 17 July 1958, the Resident was Major Miroslav Nacvalač "Kubeš" (expelled for espionage in 1961), and from 1957 – 1962 the Deputy Resident was Captain Jaroslav Rybář "Trnka." From 30 January 1970, the Resident was Colonel Václav Králík "Kareš" (1st Secretary, fig. top left). From 1977 – 1981 the Resident was Colonel Jiří Slanina "Sádek" (fig. below left). Also working at the residentura was later defector (1986) Jan Fila "Šturma", who from 1978 was commissioned as Deputy Resident and was in this capacity charged with contacting the representatives of the intelligence service of the USSR in New York and Washington. In the USA he also handled Karl Köcher (Rino) and his wife. The residentura carried out tasks against the main enemy – the USA and NATO; its activities also focused on the UN headquarters. The last Resident was Captain JUDr. Petr Hála "Hlinka" in 1989.
MONTREALThe residentura obtained information and developed the expatriate community and emigration activities. It focused in particular on learning about US military, political and economic plans against Czechoslovakia and the Soviet Bloc countries, as well as the activities of Canadian special services and their links to the special services of the USA and NATO with respect to actions against Czechoslovakia and the communist countries and acquiring knowledge and high-tech documents in connection with the disposal of nuclear waste. The headquarters tasked the residentura with infiltrating the USA to gather scientific-technical intelligence and performing specific illegal intelligence assignments and missions arising from the agreement with the Soviet intelligence services in this area. In 1955, four agents served here and 28 potential agents were developed. The residentura also focused on Czechoslovak emigration, which in 1968 amounted to over 10,000 people. Until 1958 the Resident was First Lieutenant Ladislav Weidinger "Macháček" (top right). In 1961 the resident became Major Václav Louda "Linhart" (left). During EXPO 67 the Resident was Lieutenant Colonel Jiří Svoboda "Sviták". In September 1968, First Lieutenant Jindřich Mládek "Moudrý (The Wise)" was appointed Deputy Resident. From 1977 – 1979, the residentura was directed by Major PhDr. Miloš Rudolecký "Ráž" (consul). The last resident was Major Jaroslav Hrbáček "Paukert" in 1988.
Austria constituted for the USSR and Czechoslovakia a starting base for offensive actions against the "main enemy" – the USA and NATO. It served for handling agents and operations in third countries and structures of NATO, the UN, the infiltration of exile, and so on. In Austria, the Intelligence Service also carried out abductions (operation ALEX – the kidnapping of B. Laušman in 1953). Operatives were permanently planted in the UN in Vienna and the residentura ranked among the largest in Europe. It also conducted operations in cooperation with the KGB, the military counterintelligence service, Border Guard and Directorate II of the National Security Corps. An important part was scientific-technical espionage, buying embargoed devices and components and special imports to the Federal Ministry of the Interior. A senior official of the Austrian Stapa Alfred Petrovič alias Fridolín Hechtl (Alpe, Duda, May, June, July, August, etc.) in 1962 at the direction of the KGB poisoned Hungarian defector Bela Lápusnyik with dimethyl sulphate supplied by the KGB. Agent Maximilan Mattese (Dax, Dofen), colonel of the Austrian secret service, after retirement passed information from the Simon Wiesenthal Centre and was highly valued by the KGB. Ivo Šafář (Dior, Egon) was an agent deployed against Pavel Tigrid and until his death in 1980 was involved in "smuggling" dissident literature. His reports were forwarded to the KGB. Miroslava Mrázová (Sláva) was an agent given away by State Security agent Karel Zbytek and turned by the State Security. Originally she worked for the British secret service. She helped plant bugs in the Viennese apartment of Radomir Luže (operation Louka). Blažej Müller (Dore, Dub) was an agent – head of a Catholic charity in Vienna – who supplied information about the expatriate community in Austria. Other important agents included the former director of Österreichischer Rundfunk (the Austrian national public service broadcaster) Helmut Zilk (Holec) as well as Herman Rauscher (Günter), Franz Hrbek (Hacke), Bedřich Dočekal (Kozak) and others. According to documents published on the CIA's website in 2008, in 1959 that agency handled a high-ranking agent at the residentura in Vienna, who informed it about several agents of the Czechoslovak Intelligence Service. Residents: until 1953 First Lieutenant Miroslav Nacvalač "Kubeš", who "worked closely with the KGB" (bottom right), from 1953 – 1955 First Lieutenant Bohumil Molnár "Drábek" (top right), from 1956 – 57 Major Jarmil Šindelář "Šustr", from 1957 – 1960 Captain Josef Kalina "Karhan", in January 1968 appointed Deputy Resident Major Věroslav Sobek "Šedivý (The Grey)" (Czechoslovak mission to the IAEA) from 1969 – 1972 the Resident was Lieutenant Colonel Vilém Koziorek "Pavliš", from 1972 – 1978 Lieutenant Colonel Josef Slunečko "Srba (The Serb)", from 1979 – 1981 Captain Vilém Václavek "Kainar", from 1983 – 87 the Resident was Colonol Karel Vodrážka "Budín" (top left). The last Resident was Lieutenant Colonel Oldřich Vaca "Drtina" (left) in 1989.
Col. Čestmír Podzemný
Before coming to the Ministry of the Interior he was chief of Department 2 of the Intelligence Directorate of the General Staff. From 1968 – 1970, chief of Directorate I of the Ministry of the Interior until 31 December 1970. From January 1971 transferred back to the Ministry of National Defence.
Col. Ondrej Dovina (1925)
Headed the Intelligence Services from 1980 – 1981. From 1966 – 1969 chief of the Regional Directorate of the State Security Košice, 1969 – 1974 chief of the Main Directorate of the State Security in Slovakia.
Directorate I of the Ministry of the Interior Chiefs (1953 - 1989)
Est. of Directorate I (1 Oct 1953)
Maj.-Gen. RSDr. Miloš Hladík (1924 - 1980)
Member of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia since 1945, graduate of the University of Political Science Moscow, worked in the apparatus of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, 1971 – 1980 chief of Directorate I.
Lt.-Col. Oskar Valeš „Kovář”
Born Wetzler, regional secretary of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia and regional commander of the People's Militia in Ústí nad Labem. Since 1948, chief of foreign intelligence service. Arrested in 1951 and sentenced in 1953 for 21 years for treason and sabotage.
Maj.-Gen. Karel Sochor (1930 - ?)
Until 1981 agent of the Intelligence Directorate of the General Staff Ministry of National Defence for agency research, former resident of the Intelligence Directorate of the General Staff in Cairo. In office until 1989.
Lt.-Col. PhDr. Vilém Václavek
Last chief of the Intelligence Services from 3 July 1989 to 31 January 1990.
Col. Josef Houska
(1924-1997) From 1961 – 1968 chief of Directorate I. During the August invasion he joined the State Security wing which aided the occupation.
Lt.-Col. Ing. Miloslav Čech
“Čada” (1929 - 1989)
Chief from 1 August 1968 until the Soviet occupation. Recalled in December 1968.
Col. Jaroslav Miller
A member of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia since 1945, chief of Directorate I from 1953 – 1961. Discharged from the National Security Corps in 1962 due to activities during the political trials (1949 – 1953) for using illegal investigation methods. In 1963 he was stripped of the rank of colonel and all decorations.
Col. PhDr. Karel Vodrážka
“Budín" (1933 - 1989)
Chief from 1 May until his sudden death on 30 June 1989.
Náčelníci I. správy
ROMEThe residentura was important for obtaining information from political, business and economic circles. It focused on obtaining information on the activities of Czech and Slovak exiles (e.g. Jiří Pelikán and the magazine Listy). The main task was to build a network of agents in the Vatican. Other assignments were mainly related to the activities of the US, NATO and the EEC. In the 1970s and 80s, it worked together with the KGB in handling several agents. Journalist Ezzio Ciccarella (Huta) was a correspondent in Eastern Europe. In 1987, Irena Torettová – Trolerová (Lupina, Illan), an agent deployed to the Vatican, planted a bug in the desk lamp of Cardinal Casaroli, which has used directly by the KGB. Ingebor Mašatová (Ago), who worked as a translator at the information centre of the Jesuit Order, in the early 1970s was handed over to the control of the KGB. Giuseppe Ferrarini (Docent), a member of the Christian Democratic Party, who was turned in 1969 and two years later handed over to the KGB, was a personal secretary to several interior ministers of Italy. Ruggiero Orfei (Efo), a high-ranking Vatican diplomat, was acquired in the second half of the 1980s and handled in cooperation with the KGB. Arnošt Mašat (Caka), the father of the agent "Ago", was highly valued by the KGB since the 1960s. When implementing the successful operation "Vampire II" (1975), the Czechoslovak Intelligence Service in close coordination with the KGB (resident Gurgen Semenovič Agajan) attempted to assassinate Jiří Pelikán. The agents involved in the operation were Directorate I servicemen Milan Jelínek "Brodský" and Jaroslav Forst "Fukan" (fig. right). Residents: in 1956 First Lieutenant Josef Kuřík "Klíma", from1962 – 1971 Captain Ferdinand Viduna "Jaroš" (left), from 1971 Lieutenant Colonel František Pošťulka “Lamač"(top left). From 1977 – 1982 the residentura was directed by First Lieutenant Vladimír Doležal "Cerman" (3rd Secretary) and from 1985 by Major Ing. Miroslav Čemus "Hojer".
LONDONOne of the most successful agents in Great Britain was Karel Zbytek (Light). He supplied information on almost the entire agency network of the CIO (Czechoslovak Intelligence Office), which until 1959 was part of the British intelligence service SIS. Up until 1968 an important agent was Nicolas Prager (Marconi), who supplied military information and was highly valued by the KGB. Information from defectors J. Frolík and F. August led to his conviction in 1972 for 12 years. In 1956, the Resident in London was Captain Václav Louda "Linhart" (left), whose deputy was First Lieutenant Václav Šajchl "Majer". From 1966 – 1969 the Resident was Colonel Josef Kalina "Karhan" (bottom left). Following the mass expulsions of KGB agents in 1971, the Soviet espionage activities were temporarily substituted by other communist countries. In 1972, Lieutenant Colonel Jiří Černý "Nedbal" (right) became Deputy Resident and was later named an "honorary member of the KGB." In 1974, eight Czechoslovak diplomats were banished – members of the Intelligence Services – and the residentura was in shambles. The remaining member of Directorate I, Jan Příkopa "Percha", became the Resident, but in 1980 he was dismissed for incompetence. Until 1981, the residentura was directed by Captain Ing. Jaromír Kaloč "Kaluža (Puddle)". From 1982 – 1986, the Resident was Major Josef Houžvička "Hradil" (bottom right), and from 1986 – 1988 it was directed by Captain Ing. Libor Tělecký "Vozňák". The last Resident was Captain Ing. Jiří Musiál "Polanka" from 1988 – 1990. The residentura was tasked with assignments in the field of detection of plans and activities of "ideo-diversion centres" and emigration, USA and NATO facilities, the UK special services and cooperation with Soviet intelligence services, including scientific-technical intelligence (pharmacy, medicine, laser technology, etc.). In the last 20 years these goals were achieved only on paper. The agency network was after 1968 minimum, based primarily on contacts between exiles living in the UK. The Intelligence Services here experienced no significant achievements up to 1989. Following the defection of Colonel Vlastimil Ludvík "Pantůčka" in 1988 in Delhi, a year later Great Britain expelled four more Czechoslovak diplomats. The defection also resulted in the exchange of chief of Czechoslovak Intelligence Service Karel Sochor. In 1988, the British services arrested Czechoslovak illegal Lieutenant Colonel Václav Jelínek, who lived under a false identity as Dutchman Erwin van Haarlem. Jelínek was sentenced to 10 years for espionage.
PARISParis was one of the largest residenturas of the communist intelligence services. In the 1960s it was headed by several important agents. For example, Albert Lentin (Heman) and Jean Raoul Clementine (Pipa) worked in the newsroom of the newspaper Libération and published articles written by the Intelligence Service. Agent Jean Edouard Ramonet (Kumán) provided information from French industry and his reports were highly valued by the KGB. Gerard Leconte (Sámo) was a top agent who worked in the cabinet of the Paris prefect of police, and was responsible for communicating with the secret services. His reports were highly valued by the KGB. Agent Lubomír Chladil (Tomanský) was planted in the early 1970s and became a senior banker at the Société Générale; his reports were forwarded to the KGB. Josef Bednařík, alias Giullaume Beard (Portos), was an agent who worked as the chief of staff of French Interior Minister Pierre Joxe. After 1989, he was secretary of Jean Marie Le Pen. France was also important for offensive actions by the Czechoslovak Intelligence Service in uncovering plans for activities of "ideo-diversion centres" (e.g. the editorial board of the magazine Testimony – Pavel Tigrid), as well as the acquisition of knowledge from the world's leading research centres in the field of medicine (cancer, AIDS), development of French special services and US, NATO and EEC facilities, taking into account the specifics of France, it efforts to achieve a hegemonic position within Western Europe and the existence of French nuclear power. From 1956 the residentura was directed by Major Zdeněk Ludvík "Lenský", from1957 by Captain František Poštulka “Lamač” (top left). From 1959 – 1964 it was Captain Antonín Týč "Tomeš" (top right), who during his tenure acquired the said agent from the Paris police prefecture (Sámo), whom the French secret services uncovered in 1969. From 1966 – 1972 the Resident was Major František Kramář "Krajíček", from 1972 – 1977 Lieutenant Colonel Jarmil Smetana "Šustr" (left), from 1982 – 1987 Captain Vladimír Sejkora "Artuš". The last Resident was Major Miroslav Kobéda "Durdík" in 1987. From 1966 – 1967 the Deputy Resident was Major Jaromír Felcman "Frýbort", form 1967 – 1971 the deputy was Major Jaroslav Šimek "Opletal", from 1969 – 1972 the deputy was also Major Ing. Zdeněk Kestl "Kubín" (3rd Secretary), from 1975 – 1979 the deputy was Major Vladimír Strhan "Stacho", from 1977 – 1982 the deputy was First Lieutenant František Klouček "Kružík", from 1978 – 1984 the deputy was Lieutenant Daniel Litecký "Brejha" (right).
LISBONThe headquarters of the Czechoslovak intelligence service regarded Portugal as a favourable territory for operations. The plan was for the Lisbon residentura to infiltrate and gather information about US, NATO and EEC facilities. Portugal's close ties to US industry were suitable for obtaining data, documents and materials in electronics, engineering and biotechnology. The residentura was established here in the late 1970s, after the Carnation Revolution. The Resident from 1981 – 1985 was First Lieutenant Miroslav Manďák "Roland". The last Resident was Captain JUDr. Oldřich Tobiáš "Trojan" in 1988.
BRUSSELSThe residentura was used to spy on various US, NATO and EEC facilities (in Brussels, the headquarters of NATO and the EEC). It was one of the main residenturas for gathering political intelligence. The residentura also fulfilled the obligations arising from agreements with Soviet intelligence. Agent "Nina" worked as a parliamentary journalist at the Belga agency. She was used for several disinformation operations. Her companion, agent "Castro", was used by the KGB. From 1965 the Resident was Major Karel Šlehofer "Šámal". From 1969 the residentura was directed by Colonel Jarmil Smetana "Šustr" (left). From 1972 – 1980 the Resident was Lieutenant Colonel RSDr. Jan Stehno "Skořepa" (bottom right). In 1986 Lieutenant Colonel Ing. František Klouček "Kružík" was appointed Resident.
FRANKFURTIn West Germany there was another Czechoslovak representation trade mission in Frankfurt, which heavily consisted of Intelligence Service agents and was under the strong permanent control of West German counterintelligence. In 1963 there were four agents stationed here: Ludvík Brázda, Lieutenant Colonel Miloslav Purgr "Podhráský" (Resident from 1972 – 1973), František Dobízl and Jaroslav Hanibal. In 1963, Captain Miroslav Ešner "Blodek" was appointed Resident. From the 1960s one of the most important Intelligence Service agents in Europe was stationed here: Alfréd Gebhart "Pedagog" (The Teacher), who in the first half of the 1980s succeeding in turning German Member of Parliament Erwín Horn (Haribo). Another important agent in 1968 was the deputy head of the West German intelligence service Major General Horst Wendland.
MADRIDThe residentura began operations in the late 1970s. As in the case of Portugal, it aimed at infiltrating NATO, US and EEC facilities. The residentura recorded a partial success in the development of the socialist party and had several agents in the political sphere. The Resident from 1983 – 1986 was First Lieutenant Miloslav Filip "Brázda" and from 1987 Lieutenant Colonel Miroslav Vladyka "Vyhnanovský”.
THE HAGUEAccording to the plan of the time, the residentura primarily worked on infiltrating US, NATO and EEC facilities in order to obtain political intelligence and engage in foreign counterintelligence. From 1960 – 1962 the Resident was Captain Stanislav Svoboda "Říkovský". The residentura was abolished in a five-year period from 1976 – 1980 and reopened in 1988 to expand activities against NATO. The last Resident was Major Ing. Jaromír Felcman "Tchaikovsky" in 1989.
STOCKHOLMA residentura in the Czechoslovak embassy that focussed on identifying the intentions of the large Czechoslovak emigration and especially their exponents in actions against Czechoslovakia.
The Deputy Resident became Major Sláva Vaněk "Velíšek" (left) in 1965 and the Resident was Lieutenant Colonel Jiří Černý "Nedbal" from 1967 – 1970 (later named an honorary member of the KGB). From 1974 – 1976 the Resident was Lieutenant Colonel František Pour "Pavlíček". In the area of scientific-technical intelligence, the Intelligence Service agents worked as delegates for foreign businesses. In 1988 the office did not have the status of a residentura. In 1989, two operative agents worked here in addition to a cipherer and a radio operator.
ATHENSIn addition to implementing agreements, the Czechoslovak Intelligence Service worked here together with the intelligence services of the KGB and Bulgaria to infiltrate US and NATO facilities by taking advantage of the differentiated approach of Greece to the treaties and policies of the USA. The residentura had good results here in developing promising agents for potential deployment in the USA and Great Britain. In 1956 the Resident was Lieutenant Oldřich Dobeš "Doubek" (3rd Secretary). From 1963 the Resident was Captain Zdeněk Vítek "Večera". In 1968 Major Josef Konecký "Foltýn" (left) was appointed Resident. He was from the "old guard of spies of working class origin who were totally dedicated to the Stalinist Communist Party and had the full trust of the KGB". From 1970 – 1972 he was replaced by Major Jan Jarošík "Jesenský". From 1976 – 1982 the Resident was Captain Stanislav Ulík "Viktor" (bottom right), from 1983 – 1985 Lieutenant Colonel Zdeněk Červený "Čáp (Stork)" and from 1985 –1989 Major Antonín Vejmelka "Kostík (Cube)". The last Resident was Major Ing. Daniel Litecký "Brejha".
NICOSIAThere was a small residentura in Cyprus with relatively skilled agents who focussed on the American and British military bases. The residentura attempted to infiltrate US and NATO facilities and coordinated its tasks with the Soviet and Bulgarian intelligence services. It used Cypriot territory to plant agents in countries of priority interest.
In 1980, the Interior Minister of Czechoslovakia proclaimed the mission to build influential channels in the enemy's decision-making centres (governments, political parties, business circles). The Intelligence Service implemented 100 active operations abroad, 55 of which were very successful. "Remarkable results were achieved also in Cyprus". The Intelligence Service developed close ties with the private secretary of the Cypriot President, who passed valuable political information and knowledge of British military bases. The Resident from 1976 – 1980 was Lieutenant Colonel Miroslav Chytrý "Chládek", from 1980 – 1985 Major Jan Klimeš "Buldra", and from 1985 – 1989 First Lieutenant Vladimír Švejda "Vízek". The last Resident was Lieutenant Colonel PhDr. Miroslav Vích "Vápeník" legalized in the position of council in the Federal Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
BELGRADEThe residentura obtained information about the status, situation and trends in the countries where the communist countries' interests conflicted with those of the West. It was also tasked with uncovering US and NATO plots to destabilize the situation in Yugoslavia and its involvement in the political and economic system of Western Europe. The residentura supported Yugoslavia in the non-aligned movement and in neutral countries and fulfilled obligations with respect to the Soviet intelligence services and used the territory to control agents from third countries. From 1961 – 1966 the Resident was Major Lubomír Balcar "Dvořák", from 1970 – 1972 Major Josef Arnošt "Napravil", from 1972 – 1975 Lieutenant Colonel Antonín Jurečka "Jindra" and from 1977 – 1983 Major Bohumil Bednář "Borovec". In 1976 there were seven Directorate I servicemen stationed here and five in 1989: three operatives (Lieutenant Colonel PhDr. František Gottlieb "Gregor"; Lieutenant Colonel Jan Pecha "Kříž"; Major JUDr. Zděnek Formánek "Kolínský"), a cipherer and a radio operator. The last Resident was Captain JUDr. Ing. Pavel Lašček "Lechovič" in 1988.
TIRANACzechoslovakia fulfilled its obligations to the USSR in that the USSR did not have proper representation established in Albania. The residentura used the territory to gather information about NATO and perform other tasks related to influencing the foreign policy of Albania in favour of the countries of the communist bloc. The residentura was not popular among the servicemen of Directorate I. In 1964 the Deputy Resident was Captain Antonín Svoboda "Sachar". From 1972 – 1973 the residentura was directed by Major Karel Čermák "Červenka" (council), from 1973 – 1976 Lieutenant Colonel Miroslav Chytrý "Chládek", from 1976 – 1980 Lieutenant Colonel Josef Kuřík "Klíma", from 1980 – 82 Major František Brátka "Blažek" and from 1982 – 1987 Major Jan Příkopa "Percha" (prior to that he had been dismissed from the London residentura for incompetence). The last Resident was Lieutenant Colonel Vladimír Strhan "Stacho" from 1987.
ISTANBULThe residentura in Istanbul focused on obtaining information about US and NATO facilities. It also used the territory of Turkey to train Directorate I servicemen for work in countries with difficult operative situations. The Intelligence Service worked in Turkey for a long time and was in close contact with the Soviet residentura. In 1956 the Resident was Lieutenant Vojtěch Lasovský "Linek" (vice-consul). The last operative agent posted here was Major PaeDr. Jan Pavlíček "Vajner" in 1989.
MEXICO, BOGOTÁ, CARACAS, BUENOS AIRESAccording to the plan, the residenturas in Latin America were targeted against the USA with the aim of uncovering US plans and interests in the region, gathering information on the activities of local special services and their cooperation with the USA. They were also meant to supply political and economic information from the countries where there were no residenturas, acquire agents to infiltrate areas of interest (mainly the Czech and Slovak exile), handle agents from third countries and secure other operations (cooperation with the KGB), create conditions for the promotion of the global interests of the communist bloc in the region, activities in the field of scientific-technical intelligence (with the possibility of infiltrating the USA). From 1963 – 1968 Directorate I established radio communication with the residenturas in South America and Mexico as part of operation INTERKOM. In the mid-1950s the Intelligence Service controlled four agents in Mexico and five agents in Argentina. In June 1969, Major Miroslav Vladyka "Vyhnanovský" was entrusted with directing the residentura in Bogota. The last Resident in Bogota was Major Josef Zapletal "Hofman" in 1987. In Caracas, from 1967 the chief of the residentura was Major Stanislav Buřival "Bosák", from 1969 the Resident was Captain Václav Bubeníček "Bakalář". In 1979 the Resident was Major Miroslav Vladyka "Vyhnanovský", from 1985 Captain JUDr. Ján Trgala "Vallo". In Buenos Aires and Mexico City the Resident was Captain Oldřich Novický "Neužil" from 1963 – 1967 and Lieutenant Colonel Zdeněk Neumann "Neklan" (left) from 1977 – 1979. From 1955 – 1958 the Resident in Buenos Aires was Jan Stehno "Skořepa".
SNB Directorate I
SNB Directorate I Chiefs
BERN, GENEVAFrom 1956 the Resident in Bern was Major Jiří Fišer "Fikar" and his deputy was Lieutenant Jan Beran "Tichý (The Silent)". From 1966 – 1970 the residentura was directed by Major František Pospíšil "Pýcha" (left), from 1972 – 1979 the Deputy Resident was Major Miroslav Majdloch "Mašinda" (right), the Resident from 1973 –1977 was Major Václav Kadlec "Košnar" (bottom right) followed by Lieutenant Jan Jirůšek "Havelský" until 1984. From 1976 – 1980 Directorate I established a residentura in Geneva and gradually abolished the residentura in Bern. From 1985 – 89 the residentura in Geneva was directed by Lieutenant Colonel Bohumil Bednář "Borovec" (permanent mission to the UN). In 1989 the residentura was staffed by three operatives (Captain RSDr. Josef Vosáhlo "Kaplan", First Lieutenant JUDr. Ivan Moroz "Ross" and First Lieutenant JUDr. Vladimír Tuka "Fichtner") and a cipherer. The residentura focussed on facilities of the main enemy the USA, NATO and the EEC with an emphasis on monitoring international economic issues, uncovering plans and activities of "ideo-diversion centres" and the main exponents of emigration. It fulfilled the obligations arising from the agreements with the intelligence service of the USSR and ensured the protection and safety of Czechoslovak institutions, delegations and experts working long- and short-term in international organizations.
ADIS ABABAMilitary cooperation with Ethiopia dates from the end of World War II, when Ethiopia asked Czechoslovakia to supply it with weapons. After the overthrow of the monarchy in 1974, the country was ruled until 1991 by a Marxist military regime, which received strong support from the USSR and Soviet bloc countries. During the Cold War years, the country became part of the power struggle in the third world. The Czechoslovak residentura in Ethiopia was used for internships of Directorate I servicemen to perfect their language skills and professional training prior to deployment to countries with difficult agent operative environments. In 1989 three Directorate I members were stationed here and the last serviceman assigned to the residentura was First Lieutenant JUDr. Eduard Jeleň "Kožíšek" in 1989.
AMMANThe residentura infiltrated designated facilities in the region and obtained information about the political and economic situation. It pinpointed areas of tension and assessed the potential transformation of local wars into nuclear conflicts. It also gathered intelligence with regard to the activities of US and NATO special services and their connection to the local special services in terms of their activities against the interests of Czechoslovakia and other Soviet bloc states. It also gained an overview of the activities of terrorist organizations and their activities against the communist countries. An important task was the acquisition of information about the interests and activities of Israel in the region. It also performed tasks arising from the obligations of cooperation with the Soviet intelligence service. From 1972 – 1977 the residentura was directed by Lieutenant Colonel Karel Hotárek "Holický" (top right), from 1977 – 82 by Major František Matal "Merta", from 1982 –1988 by Colonel JUDr. Emil Hrušecký "Hejl" (left). The last Resident was Major Ing. Stanislav Kozubík "Světlý" in 1988 (Section 47).
ALGIERSThe residentura infiltrated designated facilities in the region and gathered intelligence about the political and economic situation. It pinpointed areas of tension and assessed the potential escalation of local wars into nuclear conflicts. It also gathered intelligence with regard to the activities of American and NATO special services and their connection to the local special services in terms of their activities against the interests of Czechoslovakia and other Soviet bloc states. It also gained an overview of the activities of terrorist organizations and their activities against the communist countries. An important task was the acquisition of information about the interests and activities of Israel in the region. It also performed tasks arising from the obligations of cooperation with the Soviet intelligence service, in particular from 1963. From 1965 – 1968 the Resident was Captain Jaromír Vašíček "Žďárský". From 1968 – 1971 the Deputy Resident was Major František Vlček "Petřina". From 1973 – 1975 the Resident was Major František Šnajdr "Ditrych" (left), from 1975 – 1981 the Resident was Major Ladislav Mlčák "Moláček", from 1983 – 1986 the Resident was Major František Wišniewski "Vala" and from 1987 the last resident was Major JUDr. Vladimír Gelbič "Štol".
DAMASCUSCzechoslovakia was a major arms supplier to Syria. The residentura in Damascus pinpointed areas of tension and assessed the potential escalation of local wars into nuclear conflicts. It also gathered intelligence with regard to the activities of American and NATO special services and their connection to the local special services in terms of their activities against the interests of Czechoslovakia and other Soviet bloc states. It also gained an overview of the activities of terrorist organizations and their activities against the communist countries. An important task was the acquisition of information about the interests and activities of Israel in the region. It also performed tasks arising from the obligations of cooperation with the Soviet intelligence service.
From 1976 – 1978 the Resident was Lieutenant Colonel Otto Fait "Forejt", from 1979 – 1983 Karel Buralt "Zika", from 1983 – 1985 Major Stanislav Spanilý "Ineman" and from 1985 the last Resident was Lieutenant Colonel Ing. Stanislav Havel "Brož" and four other operative servicemen.
TEHRANFrom 1956 the first Resident in Teheran was First Lieutenant Vladimír Koudelka "Kugler", and from 1961 there were three operatives stationed at the residentura. From 1962 the Resident was Captain Karel Hotárek "Holický". After August 1968 there were purges and wide-scale changes of personnel. In 1971 the residentura was abolished and Iran was classified among category III countries. The residentura was reopened after the revolution in the summer of 1979 and until 1981 the Resident was Lieutenant Colonel Oldřich Hlavička "Racek (Seagull)". The residentura performed a number of duties, such as defence of the embassy, infiltration of Czechoslovak emigration and designated facilities in the region, uncovering American and NATO political, economic and military strategic plans, the Persian gulf as a focal point of regional tensions, and political-economic intelligence gathering in neighbouring countries without a residentura. It fulfilled obligations towards the Soviets with respect to the activation of Soviet foreign policy in the region. From 1987 – 1989 the Resident was Bohumil Doležálek "Kalousek". The last Resident was Captain Ing. Vlastislav Šimek "Šmejkal" in 1989 and Directorate I had four servicemen stationed here in total.
NEW DELHIThanks to the favourable environment and international relations with the USSR, the Intelligence Service did not make anti-Indian activities a priority. The residentura in Delhi followed the activities of the local American and British intelligence services and the development of the non-aligned movement. It acquired information about the relations of the USA, India, China, Japan, South Korea and the ASEAN countries. The servicemen in the residentura in India performed joint tasks with the KGB intelligence service, which engaged in relatively wide-scale activities here (after 1971 the KGB had four residenturas here and more than 150 operatives). The agency gathered information of a military nature, arming the military with help of Western states, ruling classes, diplomatic missions of Western states and scientific-technical intelligence (nuclear technology, electronics, new materials, biotechnology and engineering). The headquarters infiltrated former Baťa and Czechoslovak arms factory employees who remained in India. In 1956 the Resident was Lieutenant Bohuslav Laška "Dub", in 1964 Captain Miloslav Matějů "Mach", from 1977 – 1981 Major František Sailer "Bečvář", and from 1986 – 1987 Captain Josef Prievozník "Borovica". In 1989 the residentura was staffed by four servicemen: one for political intelligence, one for foreign counterintelligence and two for scientific-technical intelligence. The last Resident was Major PhDr. Miroslav Mojžita "Brezovský" in 1987. In 1988 Lieutenant Colonel Vlastimil Ludvík "Pantůček" defected from Delhi to Britain's MI6. This paralyzed the activities of the Czechoslovak Intelligence Service abroad and weakened the activities of other intelligence services of the Soviet bloc states.
pplk. Ing. Miloslav Čech
“Čada” (1929 - 1989), náčelníkem od 1. srpna 1968 do sovětské invaze, formálně odvolán v prosinci 1968.
vznik I. správy (1.10.1953)
genmjr. Karel Sochor (1930 - ?) Do března 1981 působil jako zást. ZS/GŠ MNO pro ag. průzkum, bývalý rezident ZS/GŠ v Káhiře. Do funkce ho prosadil genmjr. Vladimír Hrušecký, nám. MV ČSSR, býv. NO 47. odboru. Ve funkci do r. 1989.
plk. Josef Houska
(1924-1997), v období 1961 - 1968 náčelník I. správy MV. Při srpnové invazi se připojil ke křídlu StB, které okupaci napomáhala. U StB mimo I.správu do r. 1985.
pplk. PhDr. Vilém Václavek
“Kainar” (nar. 1944)
posledný pověřený náčelník
od 3. 7. 1989 do 31. 1. 1990.
Pověřen řízením rozvědky od 21. února 1980 do 28.února 1981.
V letech 1966 - 1969 náčelník
KS StB Košice, 1969 - 1974 náčelník HS StB SSR
plk. Čestmír Podzemný (nar. 1924)
Účastník protifašistického odboje. Před příchodem na MV náčelník
2. odd ZS/GŠ. Od prosince 1968 náčelník I. správy MV do 31.prosince 1970. Od ledna 1971 převelen zpátky na MNO.
genmjr. RSDr. Miloš Hladík (1924 - 1980)
Normalizační náčelník rozvědky, člen KSČ od r. 1945, absolvent Vysoké školy politické v Moskvě, působil v aparátu ÚV KSČ, od 1.ledna 1971 přijat do služebního poměru příslušníka SNB do funkce náčelníka I. správy FSZS. Ve funkci je až do 20. února 1980, kdy náhle zemřel.
plk. Jaroslav Miller (1914-1979)
Od r. 1945 v KSČ, v letech 1953 - 1961 náčelník I. správy MV,
v roce 1961 přeložen a v r. 1962 odvolán a propuštěn ze služeb SNB. Důvodem se stala činnost v průběhu polit. procesů (1949 - 1953) za užívání protizákonných metod při vyšetřování, v r. 1963 mu byla odňata hodnost plukovníka a veškerá vyznamenání.
pplk. Oskar Valeš “Kovář“
Pův. jménem Wetzler, býv. interbrigadista, krajský organizačný taj. KSČ a krajský velitel Lidových milicí v Ústí n. Labem. Od listopadu 1948 náčelník zahr. zpravodajství - Odbor Z. V lednu 1951 zatčen v rámci čistek a odsouzen v r. 1953 v procesu Osvaldem Závodským a spol. za velezradu a sabotáž na 21 let.
plk. PhDr. Karel Vodrážka
“Budín” (1933 - 1989)
náčelníkem od 1. května 1989
do 30. června, kdy náhle zemřel.
JAKARTAIn addition to material assistance, Indonesia received support from Czechoslovakia in the form of military and security courses and training of security forces. The residentura infiltrated American and NATO facilities, gathered political-economic intelligence in neighbouring countries without residenturas, and carried out scientific-technical intelligence assignments. It also performed tasks arising from cooperation with Soviet intelligence. In 1963 the Deputy Resident was Captain Vladimír Hrušecký "Houška" (right). From 1967 the Resident was Major Stanislav Kozubík “Krejčí”, in 1968 Major Milan Kleník "Kolda" and in 1979 Major Jaromír Vašíček "Žďárský". The last Resident was Major Ing. Jan Malásek "Bezruč" in 1989, with serviceman Lieutenant Colonel Vladimír Špinek "Lefler". In the 1960s the Intelligence Service significantly gained agent Hassan Gusti Rasmali (Buchar, Kosan). He was one of the single most important agents in the history of Directorate I. Among other things, he supplied information about the structure and staffing of the Indonesian intelligence service. The information was transmitted to the KGB, which valued it highly.
BEIJINGThe residentura performed intelligence activities focussing in particular on USA – Japan – South Korea relations and the ASEAN countries; China – USA – Japan – India relations and the ASEAN countries. It monitored foreign policy, the intensity and content of relations between China and the West, developing countries and the socialist states countries; the development of the domestic political situation; plans to strengthen China's military power and preparations for war; the main objectives in the development of relations with the USA, the NATO countries and the EEC; Chinese operations in the Balkans; plans with regard to the USSR and the communist countries in Europe; specific operations by China in crisis areas (Middle East, Indochina, Pakistan), on the African continent, in Latin America; it gathered intelligence about the plans of China's leadership with regard to the communist countries and the international communist and workers' movement. In collaboration with the intelligence service of the USSR the residentura implemented tasks in the fight against the Maoist leadership. From 1971 – 1973 the Deputy Resident was Lieutenant Colonel Ladislav Weidinger "Macháček" (left), from 1974 – 1980 the Resident was Major Jiří Chlapík "Chladil" (Deputy Resident in 1985), from 1980 – 1982 it was directed by Major Jiří Čermák "Čechura" and from 1984 – 1989 the Resident was Lieutenant Colonel Miloš Frebort "Filatov". The last Resident before 1989 was the First Deputy Chief of Directorate I Colonel Ing. Štefan Viedenský "Hric, Vršinský" (fig. right), who directed five operatives.
TOKYOThe residentura focused primarily on scientific-technical espionage. From 1965 – 1970 the Resident was Major Ing. Václav Pospíšil "Petránek" (right). In 1970 the Deputy Resident was Lieutenant Colonel Jiří Svoboda "Světák" (EXPO 70) and the Resident until 1972 was Major Štefan Viedenský "Hric, Vršinský" (left, later Deputy Chief of the Directorate). Also acting as Deputy Resident from 1970 – 1974 was Major Jaroslav Mičke "Machoň" and from 1974 – 1979 the Deputy Resident was Major Josef Soubusta "Struhař". From 1977 – 1982 the residentura was directed by Lieutenant Colonel Karel Fiřt "Fidler" followed by Colonel Zdeněk Paukner "Plachý" (bottom right) until 1985. From 1985 – 1989 the Resident was Lieutenant Colonel Ing. Jaroslav Pettík "Pilný", who had a staff of six operative servicemen. The Intelligence Service had ties to the Japanese industrial complex and based on agreements with the KGB succeeded in obtaining for the USSR samples of colours that absorb radar waves, operating manuals for the F-15 fighter bomber, etc.
SYDNEYDirectorate I had a residentura in Australia from 1955. Until December 1955 the residentura had neither a courier nor a cipher connection. From 1956 – 1958 the Deputy Resident was Lieutenant Bedřich Hála “Popelka” (vice-consul). The residentura built its first contacts in scientific-technical intelligence and the headquarters in Prague launched operations to infiltrate the Czechoslovak emigration.
In 1989, besides the cipherer, there were no Directorate I servicemen stationed at the residentura.
OSLOOne of the tasks of the residentura was to infiltrate the emigration and organizations that helped emigrants, Norwegian state institutions and intelligence services. In 1956 First Lieutenant František Matal "Merta" (3rd Secretary) was appointed as the Resident. The residentura was later abolished. In 1988 the reopening of residenturas in Copenhagen and Oslo was considered.
NAIROBIIn 1964 an intergovernmental agreement on scientific and technological cooperation was signed with the Republic of Kenya. In 1965 Directorate I headquarters sent to Nairobi Lieutenant Colonel Antonín Kratin "Klepáč" as an expert security consultant and Captain Jaromír Kubin "Koliha" as a translator, where they worked until 1966. From 1967 – 1970 the Deputy Resident was Major Leo Kustoš "Krupička" (left, 2nd Secretary), from 1970 – 1975 the residentura was directed by Major Michal Leščišin "Lieskovský".
ANKARAIn 1956 First Lieutenant Vladimír Prokop "Prokeš" was briefly stationed as the Resident (1st Secretary). From 1970 – 1971 the residentura was directed by Lieutenant Colonel Jaroslav Škaroupka "Škácha", who was directly assigned to former 1st Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia Alexander Dubček, who was from 1969 – 1970 the ambassador in Ankara. In operation "Buccaneer" the Intelligence Service monitored his activities and the events surrounding his person. In collaboration with Directorate VI the embassy and residence were bugged. The monitoring of Alexander Dubček was carried out in close cooperation with the local residentura of the KGB.
BEIRUTThe Czechoslovak embassy in Lebanon opened in 1962. In 1963 Captain František Šnajdr "Ditrych" was appointed Resident. From 1966 – 1971 the Deputy Resident was Major Miroslav Jánský "Jarolím", and from 1969 – 1972 the Deputy Resident was also Major František Matal "Merta". In 1969, Major František August "Adam" emigrated from the residentura to the USA, gave the CIA a whole network of agents and made Directorate I's work in the region very difficult. From 1973 – 1978 the Deputy Resident was Major Jiří Brožovský "Bílek". The Resident from 1973 – 1975 was Lieutenant Colonel Václav Smíšek "Stárek" (left), from 1978 – 1979 Lieutenant Colonel Miroslav Veselý "Václavík", from 1980 – 1982 Major Jiří Brožovský "Bílek", from 1982 – 1986 Major Vladimír Brožek "Faiman", from 1986 – 1987 Lieutenant Colonel František Sailer "Bečvář". In 1989 there were no operative servicemen from Directorate I stationed at the residentura.
ACCRAFormer British colony Ghana declared independence in 1957 and shortly thereafter it began to engage in military cooperation with Czechoslovakia. From 1963 – 1966 the Resident was Major Karel Brus "Zelenka". From 1966 – 1970 the residentura was directed by Major Karel Hotárek "Holický". From October 1970 – 1975 the Resident was Major Emil Hrušecký "Hejl" (left) and the Senior Officer of the residentura was Major Josef Krejčí "Sklářský". The residentura in the country was later abolished.
BAGHDADAfter the military coup and overthrow of the king in 1958, the new regime began to converge with the Eastern bloc. Another coup in 1963 took place under the direction of the socialist Baath Party. Czechoslovakia started to cooperate with Iraq and its new regime. The Resident from 1961 – 1963 was Captain Jaroslav Kazbal "Krejča", from 1963 – 1965 Captain Karel Fiřt "Fidler", from 1966 – 1970 Major Václav Smíšek "Stárek (The Elder)", from 1970 – 1974 the Deputy Resident was Major Josef Šebesta "Miksa", from 1976 – 1977 the Resident was Lieutenant Colonel Jan Koška "Klečka", from 1982 – 1984 Major Miroslav Dvořáček "Dolanský" and from 1985 – 1987 it was Captain Ján Kuruc "Mináč". In 1989 the residentura was not occupied. From the autumn of 1977, Federal Ministry of the Interior agent Lieutenant Colonel Josef Konecký "Foltýn" (right) worked in Baghdad as an "instructor in the training of spies for the Iraqi Interior Ministry". The Intelligence Service had its collaborators within the Czechoslovak colonies living in Iraq (Ladislav, Ervín, Bořivoj, Milan, Duhák, Olazar, Sladkov, Mux, Miro). Trade with Iraq was very intensive at the start of the 1960s, but products were often rejected due to their poor quality (cars). Czechoslovakia took part in the construction of the refinery in Basra. In 1968 foreign trade enterprises had 80 experts and delegates with their families posted in Iraq who emigrated after August 1968.
BUCHARESTIn addition to Belgrade, the Intelligence Service also had a base of operations in Romania. The residentura from 1973 – 1977 was directed by Major Stanislav Třešňák "Turnovský" (ambassadorial council), from 1978 – 1981 Lieutenant Colonel Václav Moc "Mourek" and from 1981 – 1982 Captain Vladimír Sejkora "Artuš". In 1988 there was an office here without residentura status.
DAR ES SALAAMIn September 1965 the Czechoslovak embassy opened in Tanzania. At the time of the August 1968 invasion there were student demonstrations in front of the Soviet and Czechoslovak embassies demanding the immediate and unconditional withdrawal of the "aggressive Soviet troops and its four satellite states from the territory of Czechoslovakia". From 1966 – 1969 the Deputy Resident here was Captain Jiří Brožovský "Bílek" (left). From 1969 – 1973 the Deputy Resident was Major Jan Beran “Tichý” (right, 1st Secretary).
HELSINKIThe residentura was established here probably in 1967 along the lines of the 6th Section (foreign counterintelligence) and performed primarily defensive tasks. In 1983 the Resident was Lieutenant Colonel František Vacek "Vaniš" (1st Secretary) and the residentura was "open only at the express wish of the young Husák (from 1980 – 1986 the ambassador was Jan Husák Jr., son of President Gustáv Husák – author's note), who as ambassador needed someone to lean on. Otherwise this area was fully under the control of the KGB." The residentura was abolished in 1988.
WARSAWThe residentura was established – as in other Warsaw Pact countries – in the early seventies, when a joint departmental agreement was concluded between the two states belonging to the Soviet bloc. Its details were negotiated in 1969 by ministers of the interior Jan Pelnář and Kazimierz Świtała. The servicemen stationed at the residentura of the Federal Ministry of the Interior in Poland worked in particular in Warsaw and in Szczecin, where the embassies were located. The greatest activity developed in connection with the crisis of the communist regime in Poland in the early eighties. The servicemen in the residentura were reinforced with three operative agents. Besides communication with Polish security forces, control and protection of Czechoslovak citizens, the residentura of the Federal Ministry of the Interior in Poland carried out numerous activities during this period against Solidarity and undertook to support "healthy forces" in the Polish United Workers' Party. It also participated in various assignments arising from the massive operations of the Federal Ministry of the Interior under the codename "North", within which two members of the Intelligence Service also worked in Warsaw. The representatives of the Federal Ministry of the Interior who were legalized in the position of 1st Ambassadorial Secretary in Warsaw were in the 1980s Colonel Albín Kožuch (1980 – 1981) (left), Colonel Miloň Wartalský (1981 – 1985) (top right) and Lieutenant Colonel Vladimír Válek (1986 – 1990) (right).
BRASILIA, RIO DE JANEIRO, SAO PAULOFrom 1956 the Czechoslovak Intelligence Service had five agents in Brasilia who reported on economic affairs and the activities of the Social Democratic Party. From 1956 – 1958, the Resident was Lieutenant Josef Mejstřík "Moldán". In 1960 the diplomatic representation was elevated to an embassy and the Intelligence Service set up another residentura in the capital city. From 1962 – 1965 the Deputy Resident in Rio de Janeiro and Brasilia was Captain Jan Stehno "Skořepa" (press attaché). From 1965 – 1967 the Resident in Rio de Janeiro was Captain Václav Bubeníček “Bakalář” (left). From 1969 – 1979 Major Josef Mareš "Motyčka" (vice-consul) worked in the illegal intelligence section in Sao Paulo.
CONAKRYIn 1958 Guinea as a former French colony became independent and the state was ruled by the dictator Ahmed Sékou Touré until his death in 1984. The construction of the infamous Camp Boiro prison, where 50,000 opponents of the regime were executed, was supported by the Czechoslovak communist government.
From 1961 – 1963 the Deputy Resident was First Lieutenant Miroslav Řehoř "Říčan". From 1962 – 1065 the residentura was strengthened by the addition of Major Otakar Hromádka "Mařík". In 1964 the Deputy Resident was Major Josef Doležal "Dobrý". From 1965 – 1969 the residentura was directed by Major Karel Polák "Pecháček". In the period from 1962 – 1968, as part of operation "Ether", the Intelligence Service deciphered the codes of the Guinean Ministry of Defence and Security. The operation was positively evaluated by the KGB. In 1972 Lieutenant Colonel Ing. Miloslav Nový "Nosko" was appointed Deputy Resident.
In 1961 Deputy Resident First Lieutenant Miroslav Adámek "Alter" obtained the support of the General Secretary of the leftist African Independence Party of Amilcar Cabral, who was waging a guerrilla war for independence from neighbouring Portuguese Guinea (Guinea Bissau). He worked together with the Czechoslovak Intelligence Service until 1973, when he was assassinated. The politburo of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia approved requests for weapons, training of security personnel and training of instructors "to conduct an illegal terrorist struggle". In August 1965 the headquarters sent Captain František Dlasek "Domkář" (left) to Kankan as an expert advisor – instructor for the National Security School. The residentura was abolished in 1974.
LAGOSNigeria became independent in 1960 and soon established diplomatic relations with Czechoslovakia. The politburo of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia approved the funding of the Nigerian Socialist Workers and Farmers' Party. In 1966 there was a coup in Nigeria followed in 1967 – 1969 by a civil war. Czechoslovakia launched support and supply of weapons through Omnipol and the Dutch company Animo to the separatist East – Biafra, despite the fact that the USSR supported the counterparty. This was one of the many motives for Moscow's August invasion of Czechoslovakia. During "normalization" Czechoslovakia obediently "joined" the Moscow policy and delivered supplies of arms to the Federal Military Government (Czechoslovak airmen flying Il-28 bombers also participated in military operations). The number of victims of the conflict is estimated to be from 500,000 to two million. After the end of the civil war trade and cultural ties were re-established. New Resident Major Ladislav Soška "Bergl" (2nd Secretary of the Embassy) was appointed to Lagos in September 1968.
LEOPOLDVILLE (KINSHASA)In 1960 the Republic of the Congo (later Zaire) became independent. In September 1960, after the coup by Colonel Joseph Mobutu (from 1965 head of state and dictator for 32 years), the diplomatic missions of the USSR and Czechoslovakia were ordered to leave the country within 48 hours. Documents were hastily burned in the garden of the Czechoslovak embassy. The communist countries had until that time intensively supported the former Prime Minister Lumumba, whom Western countries considered to be Moscow's man. In 1967 the country again renewed diplomatic relations. The Czechoslovak residentura was from 1967 – 1969 directed by Major Otakar Hromádka "Mařík", from 1969 – 1970 by Lieutenant Colonel Zdeněk Sedláček "Lenský" (bottom, as 1st Secretary of the Embassy). In 1970 four Soviet diplomats were expelled from the country and a year later 20 other Soviet representatives were expelled for "subversive activities".
TUNISThe residentura chief was in 1963 Capt. Lubomír Valčík „Vašata”.
RABATIn Morocco the activities of the Intelligence Service focused on activities against the USA as the main enemy. For example, the Intelligence Service here used its agent from the African Independence Party of Guinea, who had undergone a security course in Czechoslovakia and with which in July 1968 under a foreign flag (National Liberation Movement of the Portuguese Colonies) recruited employees of the US Embassy in Rabat. From 1962 – 1966 the residentura was directed by Captain Lubomír Valčík "Vašata", from 1967 – 1971 by Major Otto Fait "Forejt" (1st Secretary). From 1966 – 1970 the Senior Officer of the residentura was Major Oldřich Dobeš "Doubek".
SANTIAGOIn Chile until 1961 the Soviet bloc countries did not have any consular offices (ties were suspended from 1947 because of alleged interference by the USSR in the internal affairs of Chile). With the renewal of diplomatic relations in 1961 the establishment of the residentura in Santiago was approved. It launched activities under the cover of a business office. It focused on the fight against the main enemy the USA by carrying out influential policies and active measures in cooperation with already existing residenturas in Latin America. The KGB was keenly interested in the establishment of the residentura. In 1962 the Resident was Captain Emil Filip "Hejduk". In 1963 his deputy was Lieutenant Jaroslav Oktábec "Barták" (right). From 1968 – 1970 the Resident was Major JUDr. Ludvík Neckář "Nesvadba" (left, 2nd Secretary, press), from 1971 – 1973 Major Karel Král "Kuželka" (top right). After the military coup in 1973, diplomatic relations were terminated and thus the legal residentura was abolished. Its tasks were taken over by the residentura in Peru. The State Security set up an illegal residentura under the cover of a shoe factory, which was supported financially primarily by the Communist Party in Chile. The connection with the headquarters was maintained by means of coded letters and bribed Indian diplomats, who abused the diplomatic bag in their country to carry messages for the Intelligence Service of the State Security. From 1975 – 1980 the residentura was directed by Major Stanislav Buřival "Bosák" who was legalized in the position of the director of a foreign trade company affiliate.
MANAGUAIn 1979 there was a coup in Nicaragua and the Marxist Sandinistas came to power. They received significant assistance from the USSR, which through the KGB had a network of agents inside the party. In 1983 an agreement was signed between the Ministry of the Interior of Czechoslovakia and Nicaragua and a residentura was established. From 1984 – 1986 the Resident was Lieutenant Colonel Vlastimil Kálecký "Klouček", whose mission was to establish contacts with the security forces of Nicaragua, which continued to allow close cooperation in fulfilling tasks of an intelligence gathering nature, obtaining materials to discredit the CIA (active measures). The residentura operated up until 1986.
MONTEVIDEOThe residentura was directed from 1967 – 1971 by Major František Vacula "Jezerský" (1st Secretary, culture). From 1971 – 1976 it was directed by Captain Vladimír Horák "Holubec".
LA PAZFrom 1964 – 1969 diplomatic relations between Bolivia and Czechoslovakia were interrupted. On 30 October 1964 the Bolivian government broke off diplomatic relations and ordered Czechoslovak diplomats to leave the country within 24 hours. In the background was the active support of ongoing Czechoslovakia leftist anti-government demonstrations. The local residentura was quickly abolished. Its liquidation (destruction of agency documents and ciphered materials), provision of material equipment and transport of its parts to the residentura in Montevideo and the Hungarian embassy was secured by the last Resident Major Karel Král "Kuželka" (2nd Secretary), Major Jaromír Valeš "Valta", Captain Stanislav Zábrodský "Zapletal" and First Lieutenant Jaroslav Oktábec "Barták". All subsequently received commendation "meeting the challenges of an extremely difficult situation in a timely and selfless manner."
KABULThe Intelligence Service headquarters sent in 1956 to the embassy residentura officer Lieutenant Augustin Pešek who was legalized in the position of embassy attaché. From 1966 espionage was overseen by Captain Miloš Perestý "Kalaš" legalized as 2nd Secretary of the embassy. The main tasks included identifying the activities of West German and American intelligence in Afghanistan, building a network of agents from the ranks of Afghan nationals (Governor, Abe, Actor), who had contacts and the opportunity to carry out assignments against the American and West German operations. These activities were coordinated by the KGB. In its activities the Intelligence Service also relied on ideological agents from the Czechoslovak community (Mirek, Baker, Reiman, Nop, Dok, Tatran, Tříska, Otol, Duhák). The largest number of experts worked here in the military section, followed by doctors and UN experts. Czechoslovakia implemented several military projects in the country. "As a result of the betrayal of a former serviceman of Directorate I of the Federal Ministry of the Interior (Josef) Frolík ("Florián"), who also directed the residentura in Kabul for a certain period (from the headquarters – author's note), our operations in Afghanistan were suspended and the residentura was abolished." After the overthrow of the monarchy (1973) and after the military coup led by the communist People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan in April 1978, long time KGB agent Nour Mohammad Taraki came to power. In the autumn of 1979 he was toppled and executed by Hafizollah Amin, who became the new leader. Amin was not a favourite in Moscow and further unrest forced the Politburo to implement its plan of "fraternal assistance". On 27 December 1979 the Soviet Union launched a military invasion and in the attack on the presidential palace Amin was killed by KGB commandos. Moskva bet on the new leader – long-time KGB agent Babrak Karmal, who "led" the country from 1979 – 1986. From 1978 – 1979 Karmal stayed as an ambassador, later under the protection of the Politburo of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia. In November 1979 Karmal secretly left for Moscow for a meeting to discuss the new arrangement of the country. On 27 December the Soviet and KGB leadership congratulated him on his "election" as president of the presidium of the Revolutionary Council and, directed by Moscow, thus began one of the bloodiest conflicts of the Cold War.
CAPE TOWNAfter 1948 relations with South Africa cooled. The Consulate General in Cape Town was led by an administrative worker. In 1963, after the Czechoslovak consulate moved to Johannesburg, the consulate in Cape Town was closed. The residentura was probably abolished in the same year. In the sixties Jánoš Hartl (Robek) was illegally stationed in Vienna. In case an armed conflict broke out between East and West he was supposed to move to Cape Town and with the help of a handheld radar track ships moving past the Cape of Good Hope, as the Intelligence Service anticipated the closure of the Suez Canal.
COPENHAGENThe residentura in Denmark was established in 1956. It was supposed to be a focus of Intelligence Service operations in Scandinavia. But in 1969 the concept in Scandinavia was reassessed. From 1969 – 1972 the residentura was staffed only by Senior Officer Major Bohuslav Jůza "Jeník" (legalized as 2nd Secretary), who did not achieve any results. In 1972 he was moved to the headquarters. Prior to 1969 the residentura was staffed by servicemen from the counterintelligence sections of the Ministry of the Interior. The residentura was later abolished, but in 1988 its reopening was considered.
OTTAWAIn the mid-fifties (1956) the residentura was directed by Major Antonín Liška "Verner" (3rd Secretary), whose deputy was Captain Lubomír Šefrna "Šumavský" (attaché) until 1960. From 1965 – 1969 the Resident was Major Erhard Salomon "Seidl". In 1969 Major Josef Svoboda "Soukal" (1st Secretary) was appointed Resident in Ottawa. In 1959, under the RCMP, Bořivoj Čelovský became an "agent" with the codename RED. He was directed by Milan Kleník "Kolda" and subsequently by Miroslav Čech "Čada" (left). Thanks to his brave actions, in 1960 Čech was declared a persona non grata. He wrote a book in 2003 about his activities against the communist regime: My Encounter with the State Security Intelligence, in which he described the poor practices of communist spies. At that time the residentura in Ottawa was directed by agent Jiří Škvor (pen name Pavel Javor) "Orel (Eagle)" and Ivan Bujna “Bivoje".
LIMAIn 1969 the leadership of Directorate I sent Major Richard Hochman "Charvát" to Peru in the legalized position of a commercial attaché in order to head the local residentura. From 1973 – 1975 the residentura was directed by Major Zdeněk Propílek "Pomezný" (2nd Secretary) and from 1975 – 1985 by Lieutenant Colonel Richard Hochman "Charvát". In 1987, Directorate I serviceman First Lieutenant Ing. Vladimír Baranay "Dubovský" worked in the commercial section as an economic secretary.
ISLAMABAD, KARACHIIn 1956 the chief of the residentura in Karachi was Lieutenant Jiří Brožovský "Bílek" (attaché), who ensured its activities together with First Lieutenant František Hrůza "Hilner". These activities were focused primarily on intelligence gathering for the commercial section of the Ministry of Foreign Trade. The residentura was later abolished and the issue of Pakistan was marginally addressed in the Delhi residentura. Partial intelligence was provided by the KGB.
since 1 Oct 1979
selection, education, steering
All-unit CP (KSČ) Committee F-16
since 1 Apr 1978
established 1 Dec 1978
USA a LATAM
Analysis and planning
canceled 1 Oct 1979
Active and Influential Measures
Defense Group (19)
Protection of classified matters (12)
established 1 Jan 1981
Directorate I of the Federal Ministry of the Interior
1 Oct 1975 - 31 Mar 1982
Environment Dept. (14)
Organizational and Operational
Environment Dept. (14)
All-unit CP (KSČ)
active and influential measures
S&T analytical- informational
Analytical-Defense Dept of Il.Intel.(13)
ochrana utajovaných skutečností OUS (12)
Intelligence Activity from the territory of the ČSSR
Organizational and Operational
Directorate I of National Security Corps
1 April 1982 - 31 December 1987
selection, education, steering
Planning and Analysis
MOSCOW, LENINGRAD, KIEVThe largest "counterintelligence" residentura was in the Soviet Union. Its staff conducted activities mainly in Moscow, Leningrad and Kiev, where there were Czechoslovak consulates. The local residentura maintained and made direct contacts with the leadership of the Committee for State Security of the USSR (KGB). At the same time there were several thousand Czechoslovak citizens operating in the Soviet Union in various roles whose "counterintelligence" checks were among their main tasks.
A total of 14 servicemen worked at the residentura in the Soviet Union in 1989, of whom only one was a woman (the Resident's secretary). At the General Consulate in Kiev, the residentura was represented by Lieutenant Colonel Milan Nováček (left) and at the Leningrad consulate by Lieutenant Colonel Antonín Tábor (bottom left). According to internal "principles", the staff members of the residenturas were expected to serve for a period of three years, but in reality some of them stayed abroad in the same position for a longer time. The longest serving member in Moscow was Major Petr Bucháček (right), who assumed the non-legalized position of 2nd Secretary in 1985. In 1988 the residentura of the Federal Ministry of the Interior in the Soviet Union was staffed by nine operative agents, who directed 157 collaborators (of these 40 were clandestine collaborators, six were candidates for clandestine collaboration and 111 were confidants).
BAMAKOA former colony, which gained independence from France in 1960, briefly as the Mali Federation (French Sudan, Mali and Senegal). The government headed by President and Prime Minister Modibo Keïta launched intensive state-building operations according to the communist model. The primary assistance from Prague was supposed to be supply of arms for 20,000 militiamen and "partisans" (the supplies were finally provided by the USSR). In 1960 after the departure of the Czechoslovak government delegation, a mission of advisors remained in the country to work on security and monetary reform. As part of this mission, Directorate I servicemen Captain Otakar Fait "Forejt" (Resident from 1960) and First Lieutenant Václav Rychtařík "Rys" built the residentura. The activities of the other six advisors (among others Lieutenant Colonel Josef Huzlík "Hubač") were focused on the building of a new security apparatus. Based on the decision of the Politburo of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, arms, communications, operational equipment and training of cadres in Czechoslovakia were provided. This helped Directorate I obtain information about Western intelligence services and to launch active measures against them (Turkey, Výzva). As part of monetary reforms Czechoslovakia printed banknotes in Mali. In other areas of economic aid Czechoslovakia could no longer keep pace with the Western states. The country became another region where a confrontation between East and West (the interests of France, USA, UK) was waged. The residentura operated in the country until 1965. In 1968 Modibo Keïta was overthrown in a military coup.
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Československá rozvědka (1953 - 1990)
I. správa MV, I. správa SNB, Hlavní správa rozvědky MV – hlavní organizační útvar zpravodajské služby komunistického režimu v Československu. V říjnu 1953 byta v souvislosti se vznikem ministerstva vnitra vytvořena zahraničně-politická rozvědka (krycím názvem I. správa ministerstva vnitra), která nahradila stávající ofenzivní zpravodajství, tedy 2. sektor ministerstva národní bezpečnosti (MNB) resp. odbor Z a správu ZPR. Na budování československé rozvědky měli velký vliv sovětští poradci. Původní počet 180 rozvědčíků v centrále a na 18 rezidenturách se na konci roku 1955 zvýšil na 327 osob. V zahraničí působilo 123 kádrových příslušníků, z toho 90 operativců, legalizovaných ve funkcích pracovníků ministerstev zahraničních věcí, zahraničního obchodu a Československé tiskové kanceláře. Kromě infiltrace ústředních statních orgánů západních států byla jejich agenturně operativní činnost zaměřena proti exilu, Vatikánu, Rádiu Svobodná Evropa a dalším cílům. Rozvědka nebyla systematicky zaměřována pouze na získávání tajných informací, ale také na diskreditaci exilových představitelů, dezinformování západních zpravodajských služeb, únosy a v několika případech i na fyzickou likvidaci osob.
Další informace o historii I. správy MV v období 1969 - 1989 naleznete dle hesel ve SLOVNÍKU. Přehled organizačních struktur I. správy dle jednotlivých let nabízí sekce ORGANIZAČNÍ STRUKTURA. Schéma je interaktivní a kliknutím na příslušné políčko lze zobrazit popis a definici.
Sekce REZIDENTURY přináší přehled nejdůležitějších míst I. správy MV, odkuď československá rozvědka v letech 1953 - 1989 vedla zahraničí operace převážně proti hlavnímu nepříteli USA a NATO. Pracovníci I. správy byli na všech československých zastupitelských úřadech, resp. generálních konzulátech kde I. správa zabezpečovala šifrové a rádiové spojení. Infografika nezobrazuje všechny zastupitelské úřady, ale jenom ty místa, kde rozvědka prováděla operativní činnost (žlutá barva). Vedle civilní rozvědky působila z vlastních rezidentur i vojenská rozvědka ZS/GŠ a rovněž kontrarozvědka FMV, která měla v zahraničí své zastoupení a některé jsme vyznačili červenou barvou. Kliknutím na příslušný bod (město) se zobrazí podrobnější informace.